Teamviwer relies on a bunch of 32 bit dependencies you need to enable for it to install. This procedure should work:

sudo dpkg --add-architecture i386
sudo apt-get update
sudo dpkg -i --force-depends teamviewer_i386.deb
sudo apt-get install -f
sudo teamviewer --daemon start

I always suggest you take a snapshot before if your file system supports this just in case.